Lake pond open well water into potable

 In this model the influent water is not polluted by humans significantly. These bodies contain surface waters – like river water in larger water bodies like a lake, there is natural purification process, which reduces subsequent tasks of converting into potable water The water from any of the above three sources would surely have some contaminants which make drinking such waters harmful for health These contaminants would be organic suspended solids, dissolved organic and inorganic solids, pathogenic microbes, and sometimes excess of molecules and ions containing chlorides, calcium, sulphates, irons etc. which are leached from surrounding soils into water bodies The task of purification is to remove these undesirable contents from water processing in the WTP.

Lake pond open well water into potable

 In this model the influent water is not polluted by humans significantly These bodies contain surface waters – like river water In larger water bodies like a lake, there is natural purification process, which reduces subsequent tasks of converting into potable water The water from any of the above three sources would surely have some contaminants which make drinking such waters harmful for health These contaminants would be organic suspended solids, dissolved organic and inorganic solids, pathogenic microbes, and sometimes excess of molecules and ions containing chlorides, calcium, sulphates, irons etc. which are leached from surrounding soils into water bodies The task of purification is to remove these undesirable contents from water processing in the WTP.

Borewell water into portable

Bore well are far deeper and ground water that may have been percolated in into soil / rock strata recently or possibly even more than a million years ago. The water is almost always contaminated with metallic contents and if the location is close to coastline then excess of sodium chloride (giving high salinity) There shall always be inadequate oxygen content Pathogens would generally be not present although iron bacteria may be found as these develop in the interiors of the bore well pipeline – over time Treatment is more cumbersome as removal of salts and metallic ions are technologically more challenging

Borewell water into portable

Bore well are far deeper and ground water that may have been percolated in into soil / rock strata recently or possibly even more than a million years ago. The water is almost always contaminated with metallic contents and if the location is close to coastline then excess of sodium chloride (giving high salinity) There shall always be inadequate oxygen content Pathogens would generally be not present although iron bacteria may be found as these develop in the interiors of the bore well pipeline – over time Treatment is more cumbersome as removal of salts and metallic ions are technologically more challenging

Grey water into potable

Grey water or what is also known as domestically used water (that which does not contain the flush water) is treated into potable quality although people do not want to drink such treated water Since human being need pathogen free water not only for drinking but also for washing mouth, face, body, wash vegetables, final wash of utensils etc. there is substantial needs daily for potable water – even excluding drinking water Treatment of such water is significant because the treated water can be returned for use again and again – perpetually thereby reducing the net water requirement of residence by at least 50% (this is actual water recycling) Municipalities need only to supply 50% of pre-recycling event This model of plant is most suitable for campus, hotels, hospitals etc. where large volume of grey water is generated which can be treated and return to the system for perpetual reuse. Further, these are relatively larger premises and the catchment area for rainwater is also substantial. This kind of WTP can be established wherever there is separate pipeline for grey water to flow down into a sump / tank at ground level

Grey water into potable

Grey water or what is also known as domestically used water (that which does not contain the flush water) is treated into potable quality although people do not want to drink such treated water Since human being need pathogen free water not only for drinking but also for washing mouth, face, body, wash vegetables, final wash of utensils etc. there is substantial needs daily for potable water – even excluding drinking water Treatment of such water is significant because the treated water can be returned for use again and again – perpetually thereby reducing the net water requirement of residence by at least 50% (this is actual water recycling) Municipalities need only to supply 50% of pre-recycling event This model of plant is most suitable for campus, hotels, hospitals etc. where large volume of grey water is generated which can be treated and return to the system for perpetual reuse. Further, these are relatively larger premises and the catchment area for rainwater is also substantial. This kind of WTP can be established wherever there is separate pipeline for grey water to flow down into a sump / tank at ground level

Grey and rainwater into potable

This model is more beneficial to larger residential towers since rain water gets added into the grey water stream and be treated together

Plants to treat only rainwater is never economical due to seasonal availability of the water

Rainwater is relatively less polluted if it is coming down from building roofs and when this gets diluted with grey water the mixed water is less polluted on the whole This system requires obvious diversion of rainwater pipe contents into the grey water pipe or into the sump/ tank

Grey and rainwater into potable

This model is more beneficial to larger residential towers since rain water gets added into the grey water stream and be treated together

Plants to treat only rainwater is never economical due to seasonal availability of the water

Rainwater is relatively less polluted if it is coming down from building roofs and when this gets diluted with grey water the mixed water is less polluted on the whole This system requires obvious diversion of rainwater pipe contents into the grey water pipe or into the sump/ tank

Black water recycling

Black water is the water that is flushed from toilets and contains human excreta and urine The black water usually is drained into municipal sewer (drains) Grey water and black water together forms bulk of what is known as municipal sewer water and the sewage Black water alone of combined with grey water (sewer water) can be treated for reuse The treatment design depends on the intended reuse If reuse is only intended as one time reuse for horticulture, washing floor, vehicles etc. then the partial treatment would be economical and serve the purpose

Better alternative is to treatment the black water for perpetual use in toilet flushing system The treatment process would consist of removing the sludge and disinfect the black water for recycling

In the case of combined black and grey water into potable quality – his of course is more expensive than treating grey water alone

Should there be large volume of sludge (that is sewer coming from more than 10,000 people) generated at site then it is also feasible to extract the sludge and produce biogas from the biomass of night soil. The bio gas may be used for cooking, heating water, lighting street gas lamps or generating electricity.

Black water recycling

Black water is the water that is flushed from toilets and contains human excreta and urine The black water usually is drained into municipal sewer (drains) Grey water and black water together forms bulk of what is known as municipal sewer water and the sewage Black water alone of combined with grey water (sewer water) can be treated for reuse The treatment design depends on the intended reuse If reuse is only intended as one time reuse for horticulture, washing floor, vehicles etc. then the partial treatment would be economical and serve the purpose

Better alternative is to treatment the black water for perpetual use in toilet flushing system The treatment process would consist of removing the sludge and disinfect the black water for recycling

In the case of combined black and grey water into potable quality – his of course is more expensive than treating grey water alone

Should there be large volume of sludge (that is sewer coming from more than 10,000 people) generated at site then it is also feasible to extract the sludge and produce biogas from the biomass of night soil. The bio gas may be used for cooking, heating water, lighting street gas lamps or generating electricity.

ETP for reuse/recycle

The plants that treat industrial effluents are known as ETP or Effluent treatment plants The industrial waste water carries large amount of pollutants in the form of solids, toxic chemicals, heavy metals, dissolved solids and is nearly always deficient in oxygen content

Sometimes the discharge effluent is also hot (temperature exceeding 40 degree Celsius)

Such waste waters are most polluting of water bodies like ponds, lakes, river and sea

Treatment of such water is always very expensive and is often only partially treated for disposal into nearby land or water

ETP for reuse/recycle

The plants that treat industrial effluents are known as ETP or Effluent treatment plants The industrial waste water carries large amount of pollutants in the form of solids, toxic chemicals, heavy metals, dissolved solids and is nearly always deficient in oxygen content

Sometimes the discharge effluent is also hot (temperature exceeding 40 degree Celsius)

Such waste waters are most polluting of water bodies like ponds, lakes, river and sea

Treatment of such water is always very expensive and is often only partially treated for disposal into nearby land or water

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