Case Study

Water Recycling Systems

Case 1

This water user is an estate belonging to a Medical University. The trustees /management of University had the wisdom and foresight of creating a pond to hold rainwater. But without proper treatment, the University cannot allow the water for drinking or even for ‘domestic use’ as pathogen populations are sure to be found in the water. The University needs 500 to 600 kilolitres/day for drinking and domestic uses. Flush use water required is also almost of same volume since the campus has a large number of employees, visitors and patients who are users during working hours only. The estate was going through a severe water crisis because the State is unable to supply enough fresh water (and imagine this is a hospital / medical university)

Our solution has been :

a) Treat the pond water to drinking level

b) Collect the domestic used water (does not containflushwaterorhumanfaeces) and treat to drinking level

The estate is water secure in respect of fresh water needs
There is an existing STP which needed upgrading so that treated water can be used in flush repeatedly. Using some modifications, like using MBBR technology and effective pathogen destruction process, there is now ZLD (Zero Liquid Discharge)

Case 3

The user is a high tech huge factory. Water required is huge for process use and the water must contain least possible corrosive potential. Further uses are for drinking, ‘domestic use’, flush use etc.

Our solution has been :

a) Create a rainwater pond on one side of the estate

b) Treat this for human needs and process use

c) Use domestic used water and bore-well water for flush use and partially recycle

Case 5

This user is a large residential complex consisting of several towers. Since every inch permitted for construction has been used up, there is an acute shortage of built up space or ground. Also entire roof is occupied with OH tanks for supply to thousands of residents (this includes the so called ‘rehab’ communities).

Our solution has been :

a) Get sufficient space at basement of the towers and divide up the tanks separating supply /plumbing systems for flush use and domestic use including drinking.

b) Customize treatment processes, keeping height limitations of the basement and then follow our usual processes (as described in other 4 cases)

Case 2

The water user is an estate housing a world famous medical research center under India’s most renowned philanthropic corporate house and the government. The estate has been passing through the acute freshwater crisis because municipal supply is sometimes not even 20% of the need. There are many large buildings with hundreds of users in each.

Our solution has been :

a) Use open well water and set up relatively small treatment plants – targeting one or more buildings in proximity (setting up central treatment facility will involve huge costs, time, very long pipelines -every 1000 meters costs over Rs. 20-25 lacs). The entire huge estate was split into six zones and each zone is to be independent of one another. The big advantage is that the projects are scheduled, one after another, according to funding convenience and workload schedules. 

b) Create medium-sized reservoir for holding rainwater for treating eventually to drinking water level

c) Treat and recycle the flush water  for each building or group of the building (there is no need for a larger cc step tank estimated to cost over 1 crore for this estate and further forty lacs for several thousand metres of sewer pipelines)

d) Due to space constraints, some treatment plants have been designed to be on rooftop of existing structures

Case 4

Through and a metro line is also under construction at the site. Head count of office goers, passengers at the station passing by and visitors exceed 12,000/ daybeen passing through the acute freshwater crisis because municipal supply is sometimes not even 20% of the need. There are many large buildings with hundreds of users in each.

Our solution has been :

a) Collect rainwater and immediately pump to the roof top treatment system (since there was no place for creating a large pond or tank to hold rainwater at ground level)

b) Treat and supply toexisting distribution network (this results in several months a year the complex can manage without external fresh water supply)

Because OH tank and distribution system is common for domestic and flush uses, there was no possibility of recycling of flush used water and pour into distribution network

Case 6

This a township of 30,000 people belonging to a major construction conglomerate. Project is under implementation and we have designed the system (our actual work has not started yet). At the site water supply source is only bore well and the site being very close to the coast, water is highly saline.

Our solution :

a)    Use advanced method to reduce salinity of bore well water
b)    Treat at deliver domestically used water as drinking water
c)    Keep flush water as a separate circuit

Several of the treatment processes are proprietary and the equipment are custom built by us. We strategy is primarily aimed at super kill for pathogens using every known technology – including ultrasonic system which nobody, other than WRS, uses in India.

For our clients, we are obliged to maintain their systems on AMC basis. Many STPS are non-functional and we help in making them operational or maintain if the client wishes.

Case study on medium sized hotels

  Hotels are large users of water and even medium sized hotels (located in urban areas) with 80-100 rooms has to pay month water bill ranging from 1 to 2 lacs.

Water recycling and treatment for medium to large hotels and specifically the large resort hotels is highly desirable in order to
(a)    Reduce water bill substantially 
(b)    Reduce reliance on external water supplies (this can even be reduced to zero)
(c)    Ensure unlimited water supply round the clock
(d)    Guarantee pathogen-free water to guests and employees / visitors
(e)    Get large supplies of treated water for lawns, pools, laundry, boiler etc.
(f)    Avoid intervention of MPCB inspectors since the estate can be made ZLD unit

The hotel/estate using the treatment process also:
(i)    Contributes to national cause of water conservation on huge scale
(ii)    Gets chances of recognition as eco-hotel/green-hotel
(iii)    Gets appreciation of community and the government

A specimen case study of a hotel using our treatment process is here.

Hotel capacity    80-100 rooms
Occupancy average 80% on annual basis and 1.5 per room on daily basis
Water usage per day
Guest room (domestic or non-flush)             18,000 litres        
Staff and visitors (domestic use)                    5,000 litres
Guest room (flush use)                                        9,000 litres
Staff and visitors (flush use)                              5,000 litres
Food and beverage preparation                    10,000 litres
Laundry                                                                    8,000 litres

Boiler (1000 kg/hour)                                           12,000 litres
Housekeeping, floor washing etc.                 4,000 litres
Lawn/gardens                                                      6,000 litres
Cooling tower (evaporation)                         13,000 litres

Total net use                                                       93,000 litres (or 93 KL)
Monthly use                                                        2790 KL
Monthly water bill at Rs.50/KL                       Rs. 1.4 lacs

n case of a pool with 1800-200 KL capacity
Water change complete in 72 hours (on continuing basis)

Daily treatment volume of 60-70 KLD – this will be potable and guests can be given guarantee of safety (this shall be USP as there is no hotel in the world which replaces water every 2 or 3 days) 

The water used in boiler, floor washing, lawns maintenance, and cooling tower evaporation is non-recoverable in the range of 35-36 KLD.  This is almost the same volume of guest and staff ’domestic use’ plus food preparation.  This volume of approx. 40 KLD is the need of fresh water. If the municipal supply is non-reliable then and open well can be the source of collecting 40-50 KLD fresh water to be treated merely for pathogen destruction. 

Rest of the water of 60 KLD can be recycled.  This is in the region of 22,000 KL. At Rs. 50/KL the amount of water bill saved is 11 lacs. Against this the cost of running the plant shall be Rs. 5 lacs approximately leaving net saving of Rs. 6 lacs per annum.

We can offer our STP/WTP with electronic control systems also.

The capital cost of the plant shall be Rs. 26-27 lacs and the structure cost will be in the range of 5 to 7 lacs depending on the ground situation in the estate.  The total cost therefore should be 30 to 33 lacs for the entire project – payback of 5 years approximately.

Project implementation time shall be 8 to 10 weeks.

For Hotel properties with 200 or 250 rooms and large estate, the cost of plant shall be in the range of 40-45 lacs and structure cost under Rs. 10 lacs.  Such hotels will have current water bills per month close to Rs. 3 lacs.  Net annual savings for such hotels shall be at least Rs. 10 lacs or the payback of 4 years. 

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Water Recycling Systems

WRS is guided by the core agenda of water conservation.That water is so precious to all the plant and animal species but is not realized by human race in general because the State distorts its real value by not letting the exchange value match the use value.

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